A Coarse Guide to the Steam Locomotive for ‘N’ Gauge Modellers

Started by Train Waiting, December 08, 2023, 09:15:27 AM

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icairns

One last note on the Decapod 0-10-0T, but hopefully of interest to N gauge modelers.  Here is a photo of an N gauge model scratch-built by Peter Middleton (of Highfield Models fame) that appeared in the November 1997 Railway Modeller.


The other locomotive in the photo was also built by Peter Middleton and is, I believe, an NER Atlantic 4-4-2.  Both locos were built in the 1960s.

Ian

nabber

I'm loving this whole thread - thank you.
But this:
Quote from: icairns on December 15, 2023, 04:10:53 PM
just looks like it would be much more at home on Sodor.

Neil

Train Waiting

Quote from: nickk on December 16, 2023, 12:07:02 PMMorning John

What an absolutely fascinating and well written feature I absolutely love it. Just wanted to say thank you and keep up the good work   :thumbsup:
Quote from: nickk on December 16, 2023, 12:07:02 PMThank you very much.

All best wishes.

John
Please visit us at www.poppingham.com

'Why does the Disney Castle work so well?  Because it borrows from reality without ever slipping into it.'

(Acknowledgement: John Goodall Esq, Architectural Editor, 'Country Life'.)

The Table-Top Railway is an attempt to create, in British 'N' gauge,  a 'semi-scenic' railway in the old-fashioned style, reminiscent of the layouts of the 1930s to the 1950s.

For the made-up background to the railway and list of characters, please see here: https://www.ngaugeforum.co.uk/SMFN/index.php?topic=38281.msg607991#msg607991

Train Waiting

A Coarse Guide to the Steam Locomotive for 'N' Gauge Modellers - Part 7

Hello Chums

Thank you once again for all these jolly nice things you are saying about this threadingham and for the informative postingtons that are being made.  Thank you.

Yet More About Wheels and Frames

'Moguls'

The 'Mogul', or 2-6-0 in Whyte notation, had its origins in the USA in the early 1860s.  The type became possible due to the invention and patenting, in Great Britain in May 1857, by Levi Bissell, of a single axle swivelling truck.  Placed in front of a locomotive, the Bissel truck acted in a similar fashion to a bogie, helping to distribute the weight and guide the locomotive along the track.  This second attribute was especially important in the early days in North America, where the track had been laid quickly and sometimes roughly, without a lot of preparation, and the road-bed and was often poorly constructed.

Incidentally, as @grumbeast mentioned in his helpful post, North American track and related civil engineering improved enormously (in most instances) in the second half of the Nineteenth Century, allowing for much larger and heavier locomotives than were used in Great Britain to enter service.

More generally, please remember that patent, a type of single-axle truck became known as a pony truck.

Three years later, Robert Stephenson & Co built the first Bissell truck-equipped locomotive in this country - a 2-4-2 for the Belgian Great Luxembourg Railway.  In 1864, Robert Sinclair designed a class of 2-4-2 tank engines for the Great Eastern Railway.  These were built by Neilson & Co. and were, I believe, the first locomotives built for service in Great Britain with this feature. 

However, it was in North America that the pony truck, often called a 'lead truck', really caught on.  Even by the mid-Victorian era, Britain was beginning to fall behind the USA and Continental Europe with regard to locomotive innovation.  Especially for locomotives built for home service.  Those built by private firms for export were often more advanced designs than those favoured by British railway companies.

Eventually, Great Britain's first 2-6-0 design appeared in 1878 when Neilson & Co built fifteen locomotives for the Great Eastern Railway.  The main design work is attributed to William Adams, the Great Eastern's Locomotive Superintendent from 1873 to 1878.  Mr  Adams left for the London & South Western Railway before the design was complete and the final details, incorporating some American practice, were by his successor, Massey Bromley.  This was rather fortunate for Mr Adams because the class was not a success and was especially heavy on coal.

Interestingly, Mr Bromley, who unusually for a locomotive engineer at the time had an MA from Oxford, was appointed Works Manager at the railway's Stratford Works in 1874.  It is known that he visited the USA in 1876-77 where he saw at least one large 2-6-0 being built.  I wonder how much this influenced Mr Adams to think in terms of a 2-6-0 for the Great Eastern's heaviest coal trains.

Notwithstanding whom was responsible for what, the class were especially poor performers and heavy on coal, and the locomotives had short lives.  The last example of the class in service was scrapped as early as 1887 and the Great Eastern didn't risk another 2-6-0 design for the remainder of its existence.  Latterly, it built some truly massive 0-6-0 designs, but these are beyond our pre-1912 period at present.

Here's a works photograph of the first-built from The Engineer.  I don't know if she carried the name in service.





Mr Bromley resigned from the Great Eastern in 1881 to join a friend in a engineering consulting firm.  He was killed in the Penistone accident on the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway on 16 July 1884, aged 38.

From 1887 to 1895, the 'Mogul' type was not used on a British Railway as far as I can establish1.

The next 2-6-0 type for Great Britain came as a result of interesting circumstances.  As a consequence of a failed export order, Beyer, Peacock & Co, had a locomotive left on its hands which had been intended for use in South America.  It was very similar to a large number of locomotives the firm had built for New South Wales.

To, I imagine, the firm's relief, the 'Mogul' was sold to the Midland & South Western Junction Railway in 1895.  She acquired the affectionate nickname Galloping Alice due to her gait when running along that lovely line between Andover and Andoversford.  I know that railway sounds like something from my Poppingham layout thread, but I'm not making this up – honest, Guv.

It's a happy story as she was successful, and the railway had second one delivered by the builder in 1897.  I warmly recommend C Hamilton Ellis' The Engines That Passed2.  Especially, in this context, Chapter 4 'The Little Mogul of the Cotswolds'.  A charming story, expertly told, as one would expect from CHE.

The next turn of events is no less strange.  At the end of the Nineteenth Century, British railways' works were busy with locomotive construction and maintenance.  The locomotive building industry was also suffering a backlog in fulfilling orders as a consequence of the engineering workers' strike of July 1897 to January18983.

This unfortunate circumstance, coupled with an urgent demand for new locomotives, resulted in three British railways purchasing a total of seventy 'Moguls', of distinctly American aspect, only gently modified for British requirements, from Baldwin and ten from Schenectady Locomotive Works (this firm became part of ALCO in 1901) in 1899-1900.
 
Whilst meeting an urgent need for locomotives, it is fair to say that the owning companies, Great Central (20), Great Northern (20) and Midland (40 - 30 from Baldwin and the 10 Schenectady examples) were less than enthusiastic about these imports.  Withdrawals commenced in 1909 and concluded in 1915.


A Diversion

The speed of delivery of the USA 'Moguls' was indicative of the amount of competition the British private locomotive building industry was facing.  It had less support from its home railways than the US manufacturers enjoyed, as the larger (and some not so large) British railways preferred to build locomotives in their own works at this time.

The US locomotive industry was a serious competitor to British builders.  Here are some figures borrowed from the late John Thomas' fascinating book, The Springburn Story4.

The Baldwin company had increased annual locomotive production from 313 in 1894 to 1,533 in 1902 and was making inroads into traditional overseas markets for British-built locomotives.

Perhaps even more worryingly, in round figures, Baldwin built the 313 locomotives with 1,400 men.  At the same time, the Glasgow firm of Neilson, Reid built 200 locomotives with 2,500 men.  British productivity worries are no recent phenomenon. 


Three Great Western Designs

The next three, yes three, British 2-6-0 designs were for the Great Western Railway.  Two different types, with double frames, were designed when William Dean was Locomotive Superintendent, entering service between 1901 and 1903.

Mr Dean commenced his service with the Great Western in 1855 and remained there until he retired in June 1902.  However, it is generally accepted that Mr Dean, who was suffering from ill-health, was something of a figurehead for his last five years in office, as George Jackson Churchward (of whom more later) was promoted as Mr Dean's Chief Assistant in September 1897.

The years of the Dean/Churchward transition saw some experimental types enter service, nominally attributed to Mr Dean, but clearly incorporating Mr Churchward's ideas.

The first Great Western 'Mogul' was a 2-6-0 variation of the experimental 4-6-0, No. 2601, of 1899 which was nicknamed Kruger5.  The first 2-6-0, No. 2602, built in the same year, was called Mrs Kruger!  Another eight '2602' class 2-6-0s, Nos. 2603 to 3610, were built from 1900 to 1903.  The class was very short-lived, being withdrawn by the end of 1906.

The second Great Western 2-6-0 design was the 'Aberdare' class, a much more successful design, of which 72 were built between 1900 and 1906. The nine '2602' class 2-6-0s were officially 'renewed' as additional members of the 'Aberdare' class in 1906.  There was presumably rather a lot of an accountancy exercise about this 'renewing'.

The 'Aberdares' were more successful and were withdrawn over a protracted period between 1934 and 1949.

The final Great Western 2-6-0 was a typically Churchward design, with inside frames, although it was Harold Holcroft who suggested the concept of a mixed-traffic 'Mogul' to Mr Churchward.  This was the well-known '4300' class, of which 342 were built.  The class was a synthesis of Churchward standard parts.  This class was introduced in the final year of our present period - 1911.


Bar Frames

No, not that kind of bar, although, if you have read this postington thus far, a visit might be in order for medicinal purposes.  Mention of Mr Churchward's designs reminds me that I have not, thus far, introduced you to bar frames.  These were common in overseas steam locomotive practice but, apart from early designs such as those by Edward Bury, did not find favour in Great Britain.

The American-built 'Moguls', mentioned ante, had bar frames.  Mr Churchward also used them in the de Glehn-type bogie which he favoured for his bogie locomotives.

Instead of using shaped metal plates, bar frames comprise an assembly of forged rectangular-section metal bars.  How best to describe these to a railway modeller?

Perhaps the best way will be if you imagine a plate frame as the surface of a traditional, nicely old-fashioned solid-top baseboard, like I use for my 'train-setty' table-top railways, laid vertically lengthwise along its longest edge.

Now, please imagine the framework for an open-top baseboard, as used by serious modellers (perhaps someone has a photograph) laid vertically lengthwise along its longest edge.  That, spectacularly crudely put, is the difference between plate and bar frames.

***

Here are some pretentious footnotingtons:


1 The 2-6-0 tank engine for the Garstang & Knott End Railway, helpfully mentioned by @martyn , has caused a flurry of activity and I'll deftly postpone my thoughts on this until the next postington, which, if I don't run away, will be about tank engines.

2 C Hamilton Ellis, The Engines That Passed, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1968.
 
3The strike did not affect all of the British locomotive building industry.  In Glasgow, the employees of Sharp, Stewart & Co, a public company, joined the strike, whereas those of the privately-owned Neilson, Reid & Co remained at work.  Hugh Reid, who controlled the firm, refused to join the Federation of Engineering Employers.

4 John Thomas, The Springburn Story, David & Charles, Dawlish, 1964.

5 After the Boer leader.  It is fair to say that No. 2601 wasn't a pretty locomotive.  Nos. 2602/10 weren't much better.  In my opinion, of course.


'N' Gauge is Such Fun!

Many thanks for looking and all best wishes.

Cheerie-B

John
Please visit us at www.poppingham.com

'Why does the Disney Castle work so well?  Because it borrows from reality without ever slipping into it.'

(Acknowledgement: John Goodall Esq, Architectural Editor, 'Country Life'.)

The Table-Top Railway is an attempt to create, in British 'N' gauge,  a 'semi-scenic' railway in the old-fashioned style, reminiscent of the layouts of the 1930s to the 1950s.

For the made-up background to the railway and list of characters, please see here: https://www.ngaugeforum.co.uk/SMFN/index.php?topic=38281.msg607991#msg607991

maridunian

Quote from: Train Waiting on December 16, 2023, 08:44:19 PMAt the end of the Nineteenth Century, British railways' works were busy with locomotive construction and maintenance.  The locomotive building industry was also suffering a backlog in fulfilling orders as a consequence of the engineering workers' strike of July 1897 to January18983.

This unfortunate circumstance, coupled with an urgent demand for new locomotives, resulted in three British railways purchasing a total of seventy 'Moguls', of distinctly American aspect, only gently modified for British requirements, from Baldwin and ten from Schenectady Locomotive Works (this firm became part of ALCO in 1901) in 1899-1900.
 
Whilst meeting an urgent need for locomotives, it is fair to say that the owning companies, Great Central (20), Great Northern (20) and Midland (40 - 30 from Baldwin and the 10 Schenectady examples) were less than enthusiastic about these imports.  Withdrawals commenced in 1909 and concluded in 1915.

Smaller railway companies were also affected by this supply shortage. The Barry Railway bought five 0-6-2 'coal tanks' from the USA (designated K Class but known as Barry Yankees) which eventually found their way into GWR service, the last being retired in 1932.

Mike
My layout: Mwynwr Tryciau Colliery, the Many Tricks Mine.

My 3D Modelshop: Maridunian's Models

martyn

Weren't the Barry K class  0-6-2s rather than 2-6-0s?

Martyn

maridunian

My layout: Mwynwr Tryciau Colliery, the Many Tricks Mine.

My 3D Modelshop: Maridunian's Models

Train Waiting

Thank you very much, chaps, for this interesting discussion.  In 1900, the Barry Railway received five 0-6-2T engines from the Cooke Locomotive & Machinery Works.  These were Nos. 117-121 of the Barry Railway.

That same year, the builder supplied another two locomotives for use in South Wales.  These were Nos 20 and 21 of the Port Talbot Railway & Docks Co and were of the 0-8-2T type.  This company was taken over by The Great Western in 1908.

There is a splendid article, complete with drawings, by the late Dennis Allenden about these locomotives called 'Paterson To Pontypridd' in the December 1977 issue of Model Railways.  I enjoyed re-reading it when preparing this postington.  Hard to believe I first read it 46 years ago, though.

Back in the 'Roy Dock Years', Dennis Allenden contributed some absolutely fascinating articles to the magazine.  This was the last article he had submitted to the magazine prior to his death, aged only 52, the previous February.

Thanks again and all best wishes.

John
Please visit us at www.poppingham.com

'Why does the Disney Castle work so well?  Because it borrows from reality without ever slipping into it.'

(Acknowledgement: John Goodall Esq, Architectural Editor, 'Country Life'.)

The Table-Top Railway is an attempt to create, in British 'N' gauge,  a 'semi-scenic' railway in the old-fashioned style, reminiscent of the layouts of the 1930s to the 1950s.

For the made-up background to the railway and list of characters, please see here: https://www.ngaugeforum.co.uk/SMFN/index.php?topic=38281.msg607991#msg607991

nickk

#68
Thanks all this is so interesting  :thumbsup:

Just wondering, is the welsh connection the reason 5619 an 0-6-2 designed by Mr Collett and built in Swindon, I believe, is sometimes refferred to as a taffy tank. (no offence to anyoine Welsh obviously) . Its currently looking slightly daft sporting a cow catcher, large headlight, and bell for Polar Express duties. Still the kids love it and it a great money spinner for our small local preserved railway


Papyrus

All very, very interesting. Many thanks to John, and everybody who has added their two-penn'orth. I already knew about the Decapod, but not that it had such a short life, and I hadn't realised the GER was quite so innovative. And I used to think I knew quite a bit about the GER too... Looking forward to more fascinating facts!

 :toot:  :toot:

Cheers,

Chris

martyn

 :offtopicsign:  :offtopicsign:

Quote from: Papyrus on December 19, 2023, 03:12:37 PMAll very, very interesting. Many thanks to John, and everybody who has added their two-penn'orth. I already knew about the Decapod, but not that it had such a short life, and I hadn't realised the GER was quite so innovative. And I used to think I knew quite a bit about the GER too... Looking forward to more fascinating facts!

 :toot:  :toot:

Cheers,

Chris

Oil firing, most intensive steam suburban service in the world (I think), busiest station (?-one of, anyway) most powerful 0-6-0 in the UK until the Bulleid Q1....

Martyn

Train Waiting

Quote from: Papyrus on December 19, 2023, 03:12:37 PMAll very, very interesting. Many thanks to John, and everybody who has added their two-penn'orth.

Thank you very much, Chris.  In particular, thank you for mentioning the contributors to the discussion, as that is where the really interesting stuff can be found and I'm especially grateful to them.

The GER gets mentioned in my next postington.  There might even be a picturingham of a blue tank engine - no, not Thomas.

Thanks again and all best wishes.

John
Please visit us at www.poppingham.com

'Why does the Disney Castle work so well?  Because it borrows from reality without ever slipping into it.'

(Acknowledgement: John Goodall Esq, Architectural Editor, 'Country Life'.)

The Table-Top Railway is an attempt to create, in British 'N' gauge,  a 'semi-scenic' railway in the old-fashioned style, reminiscent of the layouts of the 1930s to the 1950s.

For the made-up background to the railway and list of characters, please see here: https://www.ngaugeforum.co.uk/SMFN/index.php?topic=38281.msg607991#msg607991

Papyrus

Quote from: Train Waiting on December 19, 2023, 04:30:53 PMThe GER gets mentioned in my next postington.  There might even be a picturingham of a blue ... engine

Ah yes, blue engines. I know 4-4-0s were several chapters ago, but I couldn't resist taking your cue to post a picture of what I, and a few others, think is the most elegant steam loco ever built*, Holden's 'Claud Hamilton'.



Sadly, I don't think either the UM model or the BHE kit do justice to it, but that hasn't stopped me buying two UMs.

Keep up the good work,

Cheers,

Chris

* I'm prepared to accept a counter-argument in favour of Stirling's 8ft Single...

martyn

 :offtopicsign:  :offtopicsign:  :offtopicsign:

 
Quote from: Papyrus on December 19, 2023, 05:28:39 PM
Quote from: Train Waiting on December 19, 2023, 04:30:53 PMThe GER gets mentioned in my next postington.  There might even be a picturingham of a blue ... engine

Ah yes, blue engines. I know 4-4-0s were several chapters ago, but I couldn't resist taking your cue to post a picture of what I, and a few others, think is the most elegant steam loco ever built*, Holden's 'Claud Hamilton'.



Sadly, I don't think either the UM model or the BHE kit do justice to it, but that hasn't stopped me buying two UMs.

Keep up the good work,

Cheers,

Chris

* I'm prepared to accept a counter-argument in favour of Stirling's 8ft Single...

The design was good enough to win a gold medal at the 1900 Paris exhibition...

The loco illustrated is the second series built with Belpaire boiler:the originals were round top. Credited to James Holden, the design was actually done by the Stratford design staff under Frederick Russell as Holden was ill at the time.

Later rebuilt by Gresley (actually Thompson when he was in charge at Stratford).

Martyn


Train Waiting

Quote from: nickk on December 19, 2023, 06:47:14 AMThanks all this is so interesting  :thumbsup:

Just wondering, is the welsh connection the reason 5619 an 0-6-2 designed by Mr Collett and built in Swindon, I believe, is sometimes refferred to as a taffy tank. (no offence to anyoine Welsh obviously) . Its currently looking slightly daft sporting a cow catcher, large headlight, and bell for Polar Express duties. Still the kids love it and it a great money spinner for our small local preserved railway

Thank you very much.  Yes, the '56xx' class was designed primarily for use in South Wales.  The pre-Grouping South Wales companies had come to the conclusion that the 0-6-2T was the ideal locomotive type for working in the Valleys.  After the Grouping in 1923, when these companies became part of the even greater Great Western Railway (GWR), a survey of all acquired locomotives was carried out.  There were a fair amount of South Wales 0-6-2T locomotives in poor condition - effectively they were worn out.  Many were in good condition and the GWR commenced a programme of rebuilding them with standard or modified GWR boilers.

However, the ones in poor condition were to be scrapped, which would cause a locomotive shortage.  Mr Collett arranged for the Swindon drawing office to design a new 0-6-2T, based on the Rhymney Railway 'R' class 0-6-2T.  Design and construction proceeded quickly and the first of the new class was tested in steam in December 1924.  I'm given to understand the test was not a success as, due to a design error in how the valve gear was supported, the valve spindles bent which restricted the valves' movement.

It appears an urgent re-design was carried out and new drawings were issued to provide for the necessary modifications. There is a suggestion that the dating of the drawings was such as to imply this matter had been thought about in August rather than December, 1924.  The valve motion of the class is supposed to be particularly inaccessible due to the large support bracket for the valve gear which was then provided.

Notwithstanding, the class was successful in service and 200 were built between 1924 and 1928.  Such was the urgency that 50 of these were built by Armstrong Whitworth which delivered them at five per week.

I have heard tell of another, rather less than complimentary, name for this type of engine and wonder if @Hailstone might care to repeat it on our FabulousForum.

   
Thanks again and all best wishes

John
Please visit us at www.poppingham.com

'Why does the Disney Castle work so well?  Because it borrows from reality without ever slipping into it.'

(Acknowledgement: John Goodall Esq, Architectural Editor, 'Country Life'.)

The Table-Top Railway is an attempt to create, in British 'N' gauge,  a 'semi-scenic' railway in the old-fashioned style, reminiscent of the layouts of the 1930s to the 1950s.

For the made-up background to the railway and list of characters, please see here: https://www.ngaugeforum.co.uk/SMFN/index.php?topic=38281.msg607991#msg607991

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